Kitāb al-Taw īd (lit. The Divine Unity Book) is one of the earliest and most important theological sources compiled by the reputable fourth/tenth century Muhaddith (hadith scholar), Muhammad b. The Ali b. Babiwayh, referred to as al-Sheikh al-Saduq. In its general sense, this book is about monotheism (knowing about Allah) and contains narratives about the unity of the Divine essence, attitudes of confirmation and negation in recognising Divine attributes, attributes of essence and attributes of action and their relationship with the Divine essence, immortality and temporality, predestination and divine providence, determinism and absolute free will. This book is a series of hadiths in which al-Shaykh al-Saduq discusses philosophical discussions with the smallest degree of intrusion in the narrative texts. His reason for compiling such a book was to respond to the allegations made by the Shia enemies against Shia beliefs. As one of the most reliable sources of hadith whose material would be cited for different theological discussions, this book has always been at the forefront of Shia scholars attention.
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